Journal Kept Onboard the Whaleship Manhattan

Donated to the Research Library in 1983 by Mercator Cooper Kendrick, the journal kept on board the ship Manhattan’s 1843-1846 whaling voyage offers valuable first-hand documentation into an important and little-known chapter on American-Japanese relations. Captained by Mercator Cooper, the ship Manhattan shipped on only one whaling voyage out of Sag Harbor, New York, before joining the merchant service. At first glance, this journal contains the standard entries one expects from a typical whaling account, including weather descriptions, vessels spoken, and descriptions of whales seen and taken. However, the events of this voyage bear significance for not only scholars of American whaling and maritime history, but for a host of other researchers engaged in a wide variety of disciplines.

Beginning in 1633 under the Tokugawa Shogunate, a series of edicts and policies resulted in Japan adopting a firm isolationist stance in foreign affairs and strictly prohibited any foreigner entrance into the country. This Sakoku, or “chained-country” period, lasted until 1853 when Commodore Matthew Perry forcibly opened Japan to western trade. The events of the Manhattan’s travels occurred within this historical context, beginning with a seemingly uneventful encounter in the Pacific Ocean sixteen months into her voyage.

On March 15, 1845, the Manhattan encountered eleven Japanese men marooned on a small island surviving only on rice and small amounts of water pilfered from the crevasses of several rocks along the shoreline. Captain Cooper decided to rescue these men before resuming his whaling voyage, an action that served as a harbinger to one of Sakoku Japan’s most significant American interactions.

One month after rescuing the stranded men, the Manhattan sailed into Edo, the modern-day city of Tokyo and Japan’s political center in 1845. The entry for April 18, 1845, describes 300 Japanese boats towing the Manhattan to a small bay south of Edo before encircling the whaleship. With the American vessel closely guarded, several Japanese boarded the ship and removed all firearms before members of the nobility performed personal inspections of the interior. The Manhattan left Japan four days later, but prior to her departure, the Japanese presented Captain Cooper and his crew with an array of gifts in the form of rice, wheat, flour, wood, sweet potatoes, radishes, chickens, and tea. The Emperor, via his Imperial delegates, conveyed his compliments to the captain for rescuing the stranded Japanese. However, after extending their sincere gratitude, Japanese isolationism prevailed, and the Emperor’s representatives instructed Captain Cooper to leave and never return.

One cannot overstate the importance of the Japanese-American interaction documented within the pages of this journal, but similar to other whaling accounts, observations of natural phenomena also litter the pages and offer valuable contributions to several different scholarly fields. While cruising through the Pacific, the Manhattan passed many instances of volcanic activity. Not only does this journal properly document each observation with the correct date and appropriate geographic coordinates, but the keeper even includes hand-drawn sketches of the eruptions, providing a valuable resource to the study of volcanology. This journal, complete with its rich multidisciplinary content, best exemplifies how each piece in the Library can appeal to a wide range of audiences.

The Research Library proudly boasts the largest collection of whaling logbooks and journals in the world, and the Manhattan journal represents only one example of the thousands of unique and interesting stories stored in the Library’s vaults. If you would like to take a more detailed glance at this whaling journal, Mercator Cooper’s manuscripts, or any other piece of the Library’s collection, please contact Mark Procknik in the Research Library, (508) 997-0046 ext. 134, to schedule a research appointment.

Cetaceans’ Salty Taste Buds

According to recent articles published by ScienceNOW and Smithsonian, researchers have discovered that the taste buds of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises) only sense salty flavors. The other receptors have been shut off or have mutated. Thus, they are likely not able to taste unnatural flavors in the water, such as toxins, which are often bitter.  As the ScienceNOW article points out, and we emphasize here when discussing how cetaceans eat, these animals swallow their food whole, thus eliminating much of the need to taste the food.

The two articles referenced above are based on research published in Genome Biology and Evolution. Zoologist Huabin Zhao of Wuhan University in China led the study.

Illustration of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), including detail of tongue and baleen. Ca. 1830, from NBWM Kendall collection.

Illustration of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), including detail of tongue and baleen. Ca. 1830, from NBWM Kendall collection.

“Water Works Crapo” 150 years ago

William Wallace Crapo, a.k.a. "Water Works Crapo"

William Wallace Crapo, aka “Water Works Crapo”

One Hundred and fifty years ago today work on the City of New Bedford’s remarkable Water Works was begun with a referendum of the citizenry voting in favor of constructing a public water supply for the city.

The Water Works remains an engineering marvel and reveals the extraordinary foresight and determination on part of city leaders – the New Bedford’s single largest and most expensive public works project of the 19th century. It is still one of finest public water supplies in the Northeast – sourced from the largest natural complex of fresh-water ponds in the state – the Water Works, is a direct legacy of the city’s whaling wealth.

When Mayor Isaac C. Taber delivered his mayoral address to the Joint Special Committee of the City Council on the Introduction of Fresh Water on December 21, 1860, the country was on the verge of war and the whaling industry was in a severe slump. Whale oil markets were plunging due in part to petroleum coursing from Pennsylvania oil wells. The Mayor crystallized the city’s challenge: “We have a beautiful city, handsomely located, a splendid harbor, good water communication and ample railroad facilities… Water! Water!! Is our great desideratum, an ample supply we must have or cease to prosper…” His impassioned plea heralded the beginnings of a 40-year construction project to bring fresh water into the city on a massive scale.

William Wallace Crapo, a prominent attorney and community leader, was a vocal proponent of a public water supply. Called the “First Citizen” of New Bedford, W. W. Crapo’s influence can be seen on nearly every major municipal initiative during the second half of the 19th century. His law practice served some of the most influential and wealthiest clients, including Hetty Green, Henry Huttleston Rogers, and Emily Bourne. He was also first president of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society, governing body of the New Bedford Whaling Museum.

Improving public health was a rallying cry but fire was the bigger concern as the town had suffered several devastating blazes, the worse of which occurred in 1859. The Great Water Street Fire destroyed 20 buildings; fueled by 8,000 barrels of whale oil. Losses exceeded a quarter-million dollars. But even that catastrophe didn’t convince everyone. Despite the late Mayor Taber’s call, the next Mayor, George Howland, Jr. argued it was not yet time to outlay so much money, and besides, he argued, his personal well, like those of many of his comfortable neighbors, provided more than an adequate water supply. Crapo, then City Solicitor, decided to persuaded him to allow Professor George I. Chase of Brown University to analyze his well water. It proved quite contaminated “with coliform of a very suspicious nature.” The Mayor promptly changed his mind on the Water Works. Sylvia Ann Howland, Aunt of Hetty Green, was a spinster who spent many years in ill health, and due to her family’s whaling pursuits, was worth more than two million dollars. A client of Crapo, she bequeathed $100,000 toward a public water supply.

On Thursday, April 14, 1864, funding the construction of the Water Works was put to a vote of the taxpayers of the town. The town’s Quaker fiscal conservatism showed again; it was not a landslide: Yeas 781, nays 594, or 56.8 percent of the vote.

W. W. Crapo, Warren Ladd, and David B. Kempton, were appointed as the first Water Commissioners in 1865. The commission traveled to several cities around the country to learn firsthand the engineering challenges of various water works. For this, the commission was criticized by some who complained the trips were unnecessary and sarcastically suggesting the initials in W.W. Crapo’s name stood for “Water Works.” But “Water Works Crapo” persevered; construction was nonstop for four years, until finally, water flowed into the city in November 1869. They celebrated by opening the hydrants at the newly built Purchase Street Pumping Station and filled the streets with water. Purchase_St_Pumping_Sta_1889

The Water came for the upper reaches of the Acushnet, where they had constructed a dam across the Acushnet River Valley. A brick oval-shaped conduit was constructed for the 8-mile journey into the city. Its diameter measured three feet by four feet and its path from the holding reservoir on the Ansel White Pond to the receiving reservoir at Purchase Street, had a grade of six inches to the mile. It was the single largest public infrastructure project ever undertaken by the city. Gravity fed, the Water Works distribution system was an ingenious feat of engineering, exploiting every inch of the land elevations from Freetown to New Bedford.

The Purchase Street Pumping Station dedication tablet of the New Bedford Water Works, preserved on the grounds of the Hayden-MacFadden School (photo: Arthur Motta)

The Purchase Street Pumping Station dedication tablet of the New Bedford Water Works, preserved on the grounds of the Hayden-MacFadden School (photo: Arthur Motta)

By 1886, the city had built new conduits directly to Little Quittacas Pond, and the Purchase Street Station was retained as a backup. When construction of Interstate 195 began in the late 1960s, a portion of the Mt. Pleasant reservoir property was taken for the highway corridor. Its pumping house at the bottom of the hill was no longer needed and was finally demolished to make way for the Hayden-McFadden School on the site. All that remains of the Pumping Station is the dedication tablet, now mounted on the lawn of the school.

In response to more stringent water quality regulations, a secondary treatment plant was completed at Quittacas in 1977. This facility includes sedimentation tanks and the chemical treatment processes used to increase water quality to its highest level since the original plant went online. This facility monitors every aspect of water quality, chlorination, and hydrology. The city’s Water Division works with many agencies to preserve and protect the watershed. Recently, another 1,000 acres was added. New Bedford currently holds a permit to withdraw 19.2 MGD (million gallons per day), with an additional 2.7 MGD if needed. Currently its daily average usage is: 11-12 MGD. Thus, its capacity is capable of supporting far more economic development than it did at the height of Textile Era. The Water Works now serves a half million people regionally. It has 24,000 metered customers; approximately 2,000 are outside the city.

Little Quittacas Reservoir

Little Quittacas Reservoir (photo: Arthur Motta)

Today, New Bedford’s water is its wealth; a critical resource for future growth and well-being.

NEW BEDFORD WATER WORKS CHRONOLOGY
1803 First Aqueduct Association formed
1804 First Aqueduct Association complains of “water thieves”
1811 First Aqueduct Association more payment problems
1820 Sept. destroyed 10 commercial bldgs.
1822 First Aqueduct Association goes out of business
1830 July: Second Great Fire
1840 15 public reservoirs, mostly for the fire dept.
1850 Late 1850s agitate for public water; coming war & fires part of it
1857 NB pop. Over 20K & lacked major source of fresh water.
1859 Aug. 24: Water Street Fire. 20 bldgs. destroyed; 8K barrels;$250K
1860 Mar. 8: Frederick S. Allen: Measure to consider public water plan
1860 July 26: Com. to investigate Public supply: City engineer Geo. A. Briggs, Wm. F. Durfee; and Capt. Charles H. Bigalow of Clark Point Fort
1861 Dec 21:Survey Committee recommends Acushnet River Valley as source
1864 City Electorate votes to establish a Water Works on April 14. The vote: 781 to 594
1865 Dec. 13: 1st Water Board: WW Crapo; Warren Ladd; DB Kempton; J.B. Congdon
1869 Nov. 25. City celebrates WW; opens hydrants into Purchase St
1879 Purchase St has 3 pumps: 2 Worthingtons (duplex & high duty);McAlpine Eng
1881 Robt. C.P. Coggeshall becomes Water Works Superintendent
1882 First water meters installed in city
1886 Connection to Little Quittacas made to augment the Acushnet supply
1899 Little Quittacas becomes source of entire water supply
1899 High Hill Reservoir goes online
1899 Quittacas Pumping Station is completed at Little Quittacas Pond; online July 10
1900 Water Board contracts with Pocahontas Coal for 1200 gross tons @ $4.95/ton
1900 Mt. Pleasant Distribution Reservoir Elevation: 158.8 feet above grade
1900 High Hill Reservoir Elevation: 196′
1900 Quittacas installs 2 Leavitt compound, beam & flywheel engs.; Dickson Mfg. PA
1900 Quittacas consumes 2,8834,404 lbs of coal or 814 gals of water pumped per lb.
1900 Max daily water consumption reached 9,995,422 gals. On Sept. 7.
1900 2.3 billion gallons consumed
1900 1,429 water meters installed; of 9,290 taps being served
1910 6,106 water meters installed
1920 15,316 water meters installed
1924 MA Legislation enables city to also draw from Assawompset, Pocksha & Long Ponds
1928 18,086 water meters installed
1949 Electric motors replace the original steam pumps at Little Quittacas
1949 Steam pumps at Quittacas replaced with diesel powered engines.
1957 Severe drought plagues New England; prompts calls for new sources of supply
1966 Drought conditions spur Mayor Harrington to call for Water District of 14 towns
1970 City hires Camp Dresser & McKee (CDM) to study additional water sources
1971 CDM reports out on sources and Water Works urgent maintenance needs
1972 Electorate votes in favor of fluoridation; the decision remains contentious
1977 New water treatment plant built at Quittacas addresses water quality improvements

 

The Museum’s Other Blog Site

We appreciate all of you who take the time to read the NBWM main blog page. It is a quick and informative method of staying apprised of the countless activities taking place here.

However, we have another blog page, populated with posts created by our High School Apprentices. This is the Greenhands blog. After an exceptionally full first semester, we have provided them with time in this semester’s schedule to share their insights into the Museum and into their jobs as apprentices. For most, this is their first experience with blogging, so they are gaining another social media skill.  They have gotten the hang of it quite quickly.

We hope that you will honor their efforts as apprentices and as productive high school students by having a read through some, or all, of their recent posts. We are proud of their work here.

2013-2014 Apprentices. Standing: Trina, Tatiana, Chelsea, Daizha, Paula, Fabio, Josie, Cassie. Seated: Genesis, Reymond, Brandon, Samantha

2013-2014 Apprentices. Standing: Trina, Tatiana, Chelsea, Daizha, Paula, Fabio, Josie, Cassie. Seated: Genesis, Reymond, Brandon, Samantha

Right Whale Day Starts April Vacay!

Illustration: Dave Blanchette

Illustration: Dave Blanchette

The New Bedford Whaling Museum will kick off April vacation week kicks off with the annual Right Whale Day celebration on Monday, April 21. Every year, the Museum celebrates the highly endangered North Atlantic Right Whale and raises awareness of a species whose survival depends upon humans wisely using ocean resources. This family friendly event provides many fun learning activities for kids and adults, with a focus on fostering greater awareness and appreciation.

Guests are invited to walk inside a life-sized inflatable right whale and stand next to a life-sized inflatable right whale calf for a photo. Take the coastal obstacle course challenge where participants attempt to survive the dangers right whales face in their migrations. Test your observation skills by identifying individual whales based on their markings. Learn to draw a right whale with author/artist, Peter Stone. End the day with a slice of “right whale cake”. The fun starts at 10:00 a.m. under the massive right whale skeleton on permanent exhibit in the Jacobs Family Gallery.

Right Whale Day schedule:

10:00 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. – Right Whale Obstacle Course (presented by the Museum’s high school apprentices)

10:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. –  Go Inside the Inflatable Whale (presented by Whale and Dolphin Conservation)

10:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. –  Make Right Whale Magnets & Whale Origami (presented by the New England Coastal Wildlife Alliance)

10:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. -  Right Whale Crafts & Learning Activities (presented by Museum docents & high school apprentices)

10:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. –  Inflatable Right Whale Calf, Right Whale Information  & Photo-Op with the Right Whale Calf (presented by the NOAA Office of Education)

11:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. -  Right Whale Identification Activities (presented by Museum volunteers)

11:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. –  “Waltzes with Giants” readings with author/artist Peter Stone

12:00 p.m. – 1:00 p.m. – Learn to draw right whales with Peter Stone

1:35 p.m. –  Celebrate the now-permanent ‘Ship Strike Rule’ with some Right Whale cake

Vacation Week Activities –  Join the Museum throughout April vacation week for crafts, hands-on activities and lots of family fun. Participate in a highlights tour, go below deck on the world’s largest model whaleship, learn to throw a harpoon, create your own scrimshaw (with soap and shoe polish), and more.

The following April vacation week activities will take place from Tuesday, April 22 through Friday, April 25:

10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. – Free crafts and family activities. Create your own scrimshaw (using soap and shoe polish), throw a harpoon with our family-friendly harpoons and target rings, and more.

11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. –  Participate in a 45-minute highlights tour with a Museum Docent. Tours leave from the front desk. (Regular admission rates apply)

10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. –  Free film “Ocean Frontiers: The Dawn of a New Era in Ocean Stewardship” in Cook Memorial Theater. “Ocean Frontiers” is an engaging, inspirational film that features four very different, but equally important success stories of ocean stewardship, including one that is taking place in Massachusetts Bay.

11:00 a.m. to Noon Go below deck on the Lagoda! (Regular admission rates apply)

Friday, April 25, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. –  All aboard the Lagoda! Join the crew of Captain C. Weade on board the Lagoda for an adventure on the high seas! Travel the world, interact with new cultures, learn the ropes of a whaleship, and go a-whaling. (Regular admission rates apply).

Right Whale Day activities and April Vacation Week activities that take place in Jacobs Family Gallery, Cook Memorial Theater or on the Museum Plaza are FREE. Regular admission to all other galleries applies. Children must be accompanied by an adult. For more information, call 508-997-0064 or visit http://www.whalingmuseum.org/programs/april-vacation-week-2014.

 

Whaling Museum Summer Internships

The New Bedford Whaling Museum receives dozens of inquiries annually from high school, undergraduate and graduate students regarding our internship opportunities. Interns work directly with Museum staff to maintain and manage collections, produce programs events and exhibitions, and on research projects. They provide much needed assistance to the Museum while they learn new skills and often solidify their decisions to work in the museum field.

We are currently accepting applications and résumés through Friday, April 25, for summer 2014 internships. Interested students can visit our website and follow the links to apply. Descriptions of our departments and the possible projects are listed on the page. We plan on making final decisions in the first week of May.

For those of you who have already applied, thank you. We appreciate your interest in our Museum and internship program.

Several of the 2013 summer interns, with Science Director, Robert Rocha.

Several of the 2013 summer interns, with Science Director, Robert Rocha.

Locking Tusks Over Narwhals

This great piece by Carl Zimmer of National Geographic delves into the question “What is the purpose of a narwhal’s tusk?” This has been debated for centuries. The newest hypothesis comes from Martin Nweeia, a Connecticut dentist and a clinical instructor at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. He believes it is a sensory organ, since it has nerves running throughout its length. This tusk could conceivably assist the animal in making sense of its surroundings.  His findings are published in The Anatomical Record.

Kristin Laidre, from University of Washington, who has done her own fair share of narwhal research, believes that the tusk has more of a macho function. Male deer and elk have antlers, male rhinos have horns, male narwhals have tusks.

This is a good debate. Perhaps they’re both correct. We shall see.

"Ceratodon monoceros, Brifs / Der Narwal / CL.XI.MAMM / 335 / ORD. I. CETACEA" , artist unknown, 1825-1850. Note the original genus name, which has since been changed to Monodon. From NBWM Kendall Collection.

“Ceratodon monoceros, Brifs / Der Narwal / CL.XI.MAMM / 335 / ORD. I. CETACEA” , artist unknown, 1825-1850. Note the original genus name, which has since been changed to Monodon. From NBWM Kendall Collection.

Will San Diego’s Captive Orcas Be Released?

A lawmaker from San Diego, California has proposed eliminating all shows at Sea World that involve captive orcas (Orcinus orca), often called killer whales.  This measure would also do away with any and all captivity of this species, including any captive breeding programs. His concern is with the size of the enclosures, the change in behavior seen in captive orcas and the complete disassociation of these animals from their natural behaviors and natural habitat. Other lawmakers in SoCal are chiming in as well, as seen and heard here.  It is quite clear why and how the battle lines are being drawn. 

Orca poster, published in Germany by Conrad Kayser. From NBWM Kendall collection.

Orca poster, published in Germany by Conrad Kayser. From NBWM Kendall collection.

Rare 18th Century Dutch Clock Rings Again

Gerrit Knip Tall Clock, ca. 1760-80.

Gerrit Knip Tall Clock, ca. 1760-80.

The New Bedford Whaling Museum has restored to working order one of the largest and oldest clocks in its collection.  The massive clock, which stands nine feet tall and was once part of the Kendall Whaling Museum before it came to New Bedford, has a deep connection to the city, which dates to the eighteenth century. Owned by Samuel Rodman (1753-1835) and his wife Elizabeth Barney Rotch Rodman (daughter of William Rotch), the clock may have been specially made for William Rotch as early as 1754 and may have been a wedding gift to his daughter and son-in-law in 1780.

Built by Gerrit Knip, considered “the most fashionable clockmaker and watchmaker in Amsterdam”, the clock was part of the Samuel Rodman household when it moved in the 1790s from Nantucket to New Bedford. It was inherited by Samuel Rodman, Jr. and wife Hanna Prior Rodman, and descended thereafter in the Rodman and Rotch families. Knip was at the height of his career in the 1780s, renowned for his intricate cases and mechanisms.

The elaborate clockworks circa 1760-80 include a mechanically animated whaling fleet bounding through an Artic seascape. The highly decorated long-case of burled walnut, silvered brass mounts, blind fretwork, and brass column capitals is done in the Amsterdam style and features oil-on-metal painted decoration of Arctic whaling and polar bear hunting scenes.

Knip_Tall_Clock_face_detailThe figure of Atlas at the center apex may possibly have been inspired by the monumental sculpture by Arthus Quellinus for what is currently the Royal Palace at Dam Square in Amsterdam, and flanked by archangel finials. The eight-day pendulum movement is weight-driven and strikes the hour, quarter-hour and half-hour. It also shows the days, date, phases of the moon and the zodiac in Dutch. The decorations include a spouting whale, and mythological scenes of Helios pulling the sun across the sky in his chariot which rose and fell in the ocean stream Okeanus, overseen by Oceanus, who is pictured on the left.

The Museum contracted with Pen & Pendulum in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, to undertake the repairs, which included father and son clock-makers, Arthur and Warren Hovasse fully disassembling , cleaning, fabricating new parts, and reinstalling the clock in the Braitmayer Family Gallery.

Supported in part by the Rose Lamb Gifford Fund, the repairs are the most comprehensive to date on the clock, which have included conservation of the case over several years. The clock had not been keeping time since the mid-1990s. “This is the first of several tall case clocks the museum hopes to bring back to life as part of a five year conservation plan,” said Christina Connett, Curator of Collections and Exhibitions.

A Visit from a Marine Science ‘Ambassador’

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Among the many international guests and patrons that visit the New Bedford Whaling Museum, there have been few as unique as Abby. Abby is visiting us from South Africa and will be leaving shortly to visit the New Bedford Ocean Explorium. Abby is the creation of Heidi de Maine, an aquarist and author from Cape Town, in South Africa. After publishing her children’s book, Abby’s Aquarium Adventures (in 2011), which gives an overview of the life of an aquarist, she wanted to do a bit more to show young people in South Africa about the breadth of careers in field of marine sciences. To quote Heidi, “Through the series of books, marine-related craft kits, Facebook, articles in magazines, talks that I give and her blog (www.abby.co.za), I hope to make Abby a well-known marine ambassador.”  So, she created a doll to look like the main character in her book. The hope was that this doll could travel the world, be hosted by facilities that are marine science and education focused, be photographed in those locations, and have her visit and those professions explained by facility staff.

To that end, Heidi posted a note in September 2011, via the marine educators’ listserve, Scuttlebutt, explaining her project and asking for volunteers to host Abby and then send her along to the next location on the list. I think that the response surprised her.  Facilities in 16 U.S. states and in 16 countries have all said that they would host Abby and use this as an opportunity to promote marine careers. Her visit to New Bedford comes after visiting Alaska, Oregon, California, Mexico, Florida and Georgia. After leaving the City, she will be sent to Gloucester.

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If there’s anything marine educators have learned in their careers, it’s that the general public typically thinks that being a marine biologist means working with dolphins. Any opportunity to expand the public’s understanding of the variety of careers that are connected to the ocean is welcomed.  Maritime history, maritime commerce, whaling history, cetacean biology, artifact conservation in a museum like ours, preservation of nautical charts, exhibit design and skeletal articulation all require an understanding of the marine environment.  We use our skeletons and whale related facts and artifacts to teach food webs, biology, classification, geography and mathematics to both students and teachers.

Thus, we photographed Abby with fourth graders from Rochester Memorial School and in various locations around the Museum. We hope that by featuring some of our artifacts, including the world’s largest ship model and largest exhibition of scrimshaw, we might spark an interest in a museum career in some of the students who read Heidi and Abby’s blog. More importantly we hope that their visits to this blog site as Abby travels from place to place will foster a better understanding of our global ocean and will encourage them to be stewards of this resource.

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